Remote Assessment and Intervention for Behavior Problems in Kids With TSC

Study Purpose

The RAINBOW study is a fully remote study focused on understanding and treating behavior problems in young children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The first goal is to enroll a group of 100 children with TSC between the ages of 3 and 6 years old, with and without problem behaviors, to learn about how best to measure behavioral challenges in TSC and how common these behaviors are during this age period. All families will get feedback from the clinical assessments collected. Eligible children who are experiencing behavior problems will be invited to enroll in a pilot clinical trial of internet-based Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (or PCIT), which is meant to help parents better manage their children's challenging behaviors. Adaptations to PCIT are incorporated to suit the needs of TSC children and families. Some participants will be randomly selected to receive the intervention immediately and others after a 6-month delay, but all families will receive the same intervention. Intervention sessions occur on a weekly basis for up to 20 weeks. Follow-up assessments, which include play interactions, parent interviews, and questionnaires occur about 3 and 6 months after the first visit. The delayed treatment group has an extra brief assessment about 12 months from the initial visit. This study will increase what is known about the types of behavior problems that come up during preschool age in TSC and how best to help children and families with TSC who are experiencing these problems.

Recruitment Criteria

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Healthy volunteers are participants who do not have a disease or condition, or related conditions or symptoms

Study Type

An interventional clinical study is where participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes.

An observational clinical study is where participants identified as belonging to study groups are assessed for biomedical or health outcomes.

Searching Both is inclusive of interventional and observational studies.

Eligible Ages 3 Years - 6 Years
Gender All
More Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

For assessment visit:
  • - Clinical diagnosis of TSC.
  • - Chronological age of 3 years, 0 months to 6 years, 11 months old at enrollment.
  • - English or Spanish as primary language in the home.
For intervention study only:
  • - Elevated behavior problems.
  • - Parent/caregiver available to participate in PCIT.

Exclusion Criteria:

For assessment visit:
  • - None.
For intervention study:
  • - Plan for epilepsy surgery during study period.
- Receptive communication skills below 18-month level

Trial Details

Trial ID:

This trial id was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, providing information on publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants with locations in all 50 States and in 196 countries.


Phase 1: Studies that emphasize safety and how the drug is metabolized and excreted in humans.

Phase 2: Studies that gather preliminary data on effectiveness (whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition) and additional safety data.

Phase 3: Studies that gather more information about safety and effectiveness by studying different populations and different dosages and by using the drug in combination with other drugs.

Phase 4: Studies occurring after FDA has approved a drug for marketing, efficacy, or optimal use.

Lead Sponsor

The sponsor is the organization or person who oversees the clinical study and is responsible for analyzing the study data.

University of California, Los Angeles
Principal Investigator

The person who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the entire clinical study.

Nicole McDonald, PhD
Principal Investigator Affiliation University of California, Los Angeles
Agency Class

Category of organization(s) involved as sponsor (and collaborator) supporting the trial.

Overall Status Recruiting
Countries United States

The disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury that is being studied.

Tuberous Sclerosis
Additional Details

The proposed study uses a telehealth approach to remotely assess and treat behavior problems in preschool-aged children with TSC. This study aims to 1) measure the prevalence and quality of externalizing behavior problems and their relation to family functioning in preschool-aged children with TSC; 2) examine the feasibility and acceptability of internet-based PCIT (I-PCIT) in children with TSC; 3) investigate the effects of I-PCIT on child and parent behavior in preschool-aged children with TSC and behavior problems; and 4) examine predictors of treatment response. For Aim 1, 100 children with TSC ages 3-6 years old will be enrolled. Developmental abilities and behavior problems will be assessed using norm-referenced parent report measures and video recordings of parent-child interactions. The prevalence of behavior problems in young children with TSC and relation to family functioning will be assessed. A subset of the children from Aim 1 who exhibit elevated externalizing behavior will be recruited for the pilot intervention, with a target sample size of 32. Children will be randomized to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. Assessments will be performed at baseline (using Aim 1 data), mid-point (3 months later), and post-treatment (6 months later). Families randomized to the waitlist group will have a brief, additional post-treatment assessment 12 months post-baseline). Sessions occur on a weekly basis for up to 20 weeks. Preliminary efficacy will be examined by comparing trajectories from baseline to post-treatment between the immediate treatment and waitlist control groups. Data on feasibility, acceptability, and predictors of treatment response will be studied across all intervention participants.

Arms & Interventions


No Intervention: Waitlist Control

Participants randomized to the waitlist control (or delayed treatment) condition will receive written and verbal feedback after the baseline assessment visit. These families will participate in follow-up visits at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the baseline visit. They will receive the same treatment (PCIT) after the 6-month assessment.

Experimental: Immediate Treatment

Participants randomized to the immediate treatment condition will receive written and verbal feedback after the baseline assessment visit. These families will begin PCIT shortly after this visit. These families will participate in follow-up visits at 3 and 6 months after the baseline visit.


Behavioral: - Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT)

PCIT is a dyadic therapy that focuses on enhancing the parent-child relationship and improving child behavior through positive parenting and limit setting skills. All PCIT sessions are delivered remotely via Zoom once per week for up to 20 weeks. Session length is about 1 hour. There are two distinct phases of PCIT, the Child Directed Interaction and the Parent Directed Interaction. Each phase begins with a Teach session, where parents learn about the skills they will practice during that portion of PCIT, and is followed by Coach sessions, in which the PCIT therapist provides direct feedback and live coaching on the use of the skills. An additional component is Daily Play practice. Parents are instructed to spend five minutes per day playing with their child, during which they practice skills learned during sessions. Adaptations have been made to the standard approach to increase suitability for the TSC population.

Contact a Trial Team

If you are interested in learning more about this trial, find the trial site nearest to your location and contact the site coordinator via email or phone. We also strongly recommend that you consult with your healthcare provider about the trials that may interest you and refer to our terms of service below.

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California




University of California, Los Angeles

Los Angeles, California, 90095

Site Contact

Viviana Rodriguez

[email protected]


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